baby

How to keep an infant's brain stimulated

Written by Cindy Hovington, Ph.D. Founder of www.curiousneuron.com

Montreal, Canada

person-people-play-boy-cute-young-1250133-pxhere.com.jpg

The newborn brain is developing at an incredibly fast rate. The environment plays a crucial role in a child’s brain development. A new parent might feel that it is too early to play and stimulate a newborn, but there are lots of activities that will help with brain development. I will highlight 10 activities you can do with your baby between the ages of 0-6 months. I intentionally did not divide the activities by age since every baby is different and will develop at their own pace. As a new parent, keep referring to the Developmental Milestones during the first 5 years of your child’s life. If you child appears to have a delay on any aspect of development, speak to your pediatrician immediately.

developmental milestones for 0-6 months:


10 activities that will stimulate your baby’s brain:

Serve and return:

Serve and return is one of the most important things a parent can do to help with their child’s brain development. It is based on responding appropriately to your baby’s cry, babble or gesture by responding to them with a hug, eye contact, smile, or speaking to them. Being aware of serve and return helps parents become sensitive and responsive to their child’s needs, which provides an infant with a warm and stimulating environment.

Reading books:

Even if your baby is only a few days old, reading to them is another way to stimulate them. First, they are hearing you speak, which helps with language development. Even if it does seem as if they are listening, their brain is still learning. Second, if you point to objects in the book as you speak of them, you are helping them develop their visual skills. When they begin to grasp objects with their hands, you can even take their hand and say “turn the page” and guide them to turn the page. Before you know it, they will do it on their own! Research has shown that reading 5 books a day to your child between birth and Kindergarten leads to a child having heard 1.4 million more words when they enter Kindergarten compared to children who were not read to! This in turn helps prepare them for reading and writing. For a list of books we recommend, click here.

Mirrors:

Playing in front of a mirror is a great way to help your baby learn to focus a little longer (seeing themselves is really exciting for them!) and to encourage them to “babble with another baby”! I would sit my children on the bathroom counter and chat with them through the mirror or add a little water to the sink and let them splash around. You can also place a small mirror against the wall right in front of your baby when they are doing tummy time. From my experience, this helps them spend a little more time on their tummy since they are curious about the new friend they found in the mirror.

Hand exercises (grasping):

Babies are born with a grasping reflex, but they don’t know how to do it consciously since they need to learn this. When babies as young as 2-3 weeks of age are awake, you can play with their tiny hands. When they open their hand, place a small object inside such as one of these toy rings (plastic or wooden). As they begin to open and close their hand on their own, give them small challenges by offering them something such as an Oball. As they improve, you can place a silk scarf inside a different type of ball for an added brain challenge (the goal is to get the scarf out of the ball).

Puppets:

At around 2 months, a baby will begin to follow moving objects with their eyes. To help with this milestone, you can use puppets when playing and speaking with your newborn. IKEA has some fantastic and inexpensive hand and finger puppets. You can tell your own story when using puppets, read a book and follow the actions of the main character, or simply talk to your baby while using a different voice and moving the puppet around.

Baby sign language:

When your baby wants milk, you can start introducing baby sign language to help them communicate their needs. You can begin as young as 5 months of age. In addition, when they begin to eat solid foods and drink water, you can introduce signs for “more”, “hungry” and “water”. The key to introducing sign language is to sign it every time you say the word. It will take weeks or even months for your child to learn, but once they sign for the first time, it will be wonderful! If you want to introduce the sign for “hungry”, when they point to food or cry because they are hungry, show them the food and ask “are you hungry” as you sign simultaneously. I taught both my kids sign language for a few words that really helped us communicate. Since they were able to ask for “more” or for “milk” even if they were 7 months old, they would cry less. They continued to sign with me past 24 months, and they ability for us to communicate was truly special.

Skin-to-skin:

Skin-to-skin contact (when a naked baby is placed on a parents bare chest) is really important to help a baby build a bond with their parents and also helps with a baby’s development. There are many other benefits of skin-to-skin (click on the button below) including increased milk production for the mother and reducing crying for the baby and skin-to-skin is especially important for premature babies (see Kangaroo Care). If you are about to have a baby and would like to breastfeed, ask the doctors to leave your newborn on your bare chest until they begin to nurse on their own. Do as much skin-to-skin at the hospital and when you come home as well. You can dedicate some time every day to do skin-to-skin for the next few weeks for even months. Cover your baby with a blanket to keep them warm or use a special skin-to-skin shirt such as the VIJA Design Kangaroo Shirt. To view other model’s of baby wearing shirts, click here.

Infant mAssage:

Another way to increase skin to skin contact with your baby is by giving them massages. I would massage my children right after their bath in the evening and I found that it helped them relax. On some days I would massage them 2-3 times as well since it added an activity for us to do together. I used some baby oil and I followed the instructions from a book called Infant Massage by Vimala McClure. There might be some infant massage classes in your area.

Tummy time:

You can begin tummy time with your baby as soon as you come home from the hospital. Tummy time helps reduce the risk of flat head syndrome and increases your baby’s strength. Some babies may not enjoy tummy time but keep doing it every day even if it is only a few minutes at a time (do it multiple times per day). Chat with them while they do some tummy time, place a mirror in front of them, read a book to them or play with some puppets to keep them entertained.

Executive function activities:

The term “executive functions” are cognitive or brain skills that are dependent on the child’s environment. According to research, the stronger these skills are before the age of 5, the better prepared children are when they begin school. Executive functions skills, according to the Harvard University Center for the Developing Child, are defined as, the mental processes that enable us to plan, focus our attention, remember instructions, and juggle multiple tasks successfully. You can begin helping your child build these important skills as early as 6 months of age by doing activities such as playing peek-a-boo, hiding objects under blankets, playing imitation games, singing songs that also include some hand actions such as Itsy Bitsy Spider, or having conversations with them. For more info, click on the button below.



What to avoid when you have a baby:

Screen time or background Television:

Researchers and pediatricians are warning parents about the potential negative consequences of too much screen time in young children, especially in babies under age 2. Research studies have shown that this may contribute to attentional problems later on. In fact, the American Association of Pediatrics recommends zero screen time before the age of 2. Also try to keep the TV off when a baby is awake since this has been shown to overstimulate their brain as well. For more info click here or here to read our articles on screen time.

Arguing in front of babies

Even if an infant doesn’t understand what we are saying to them, research has shown that arguing in front of a baby elevates their heart rate and breathing rate since their body responds to the stress of people arguing. Being a new parent can be challenging, especially given the lack of sleep. This can lead to some difficult times in a marriage or a relationship. As parents, we need to be aware of the harm this can have on a baby’s brain and refrain from arguing in front of them as much as possible. If we argue too often with them around, it can have an impact of their brain’s stress system and they can become anxious and have difficulty calming themselves in stressful situations later on. For more info, click here to read an article.

Leaving them alone when they are awake

I often hear parents say that a baby needs to learn to be independent. Although this may be true to some extent, society has created too many objects that are used to leave babies alone and this can result in babies being alone for long periods of time when they are awake. Playpens, swings or exersaucer’s filled with all the bells and whistles to keep babies “entertained” are contributing to baby’s spending more time alone and getting less interaction with their parents and caregivers. If you need to prepare dinner, it is fine leaving your baby alone to play, but if the baby is being placed in a playpen a large percentage of the time they are awake, they are losing time to bond with you and to learn and allow their brain to develop. Speak with them when you are preparing dinner and don’t forget to interact them since your interaction is truly the only “toy” they truly need!

Avoid toys that require batteries

A toy with a battery means it will probably make noises and flash some lights. When it comes to babies, they really don’t need this. Most of the time, these toys speak too quickly. They are better for a child who is older and can understand better. Also, these types of toys are “entertaining” your child rather that a toy that your baby uses to “entertain themselves”. You want them to learn to think for themselves and figure things out when they are “bored”. Wooden toys are great to have a around them and if you want some noise, you can include rattles/rainmakers or small musical instruments that they need to move around to get noise out of.

 

More Helpful Resources for Parents with babies:



SAFE SENSORY PLAY UNDER 12 MONTHS

WRITTEN BY ZARA DEMERIS, PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER AND MUMMA BEHIND @zaras_play_tribe

Melbourne, Australia

play.learn.laugh_40373964_160668838177208_6554632948532661460_n.jpg

What is Sensory Play?

Sensory play has a very important role in child development. To put it simply it is any activity that stimulates the senses. This includes the five well known senses, sight, smell, taste, hearing and touch, as well as the two lesser known senses vestibular and proprioception.

  • Sight: The ability to locate, focus and perceive objects and images.

  • Smell: The ability to notice an odor

  • Taste: The ability to detect flavour.

  • Hearing: The ability to perceive sound.

  • Touch: The ability to feel specific stimulus and locate their location on our body.

  • Vestibular: The ability to balance and coordinate our body.

  • Proprioception: The ability to understand where our body parts are and plan our

    movements.

Theories and research behind it.

When Evie (Miss 10 months) came along I was determined to do as much sensory play with her as possible. This was largely because of Jean Piaget (1896-1980) who was a key contributor to the development and understanding of sensory play. He believed that intelligence was a process which occurs due to biological maturations and interaction with the environment. His theory suggests that children move through four stages of development, the one I was interested in was the Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years). During this stage of development, Piaget believes that children use their senses to learn more about the world and themselves. So what better way to encourage Aidan & Evie’s learning than through sensory play!

Application of sensory play in a multi-age environment.

With two under two it has been challenging to keep Evie (10 months) out of Aidan’s (2.5 years) sensory tubs. I know how important it is for her to experience it too but it is tricky engaging in meaningful conversations with Aidan whilst playing goalie between objects and Evie’s mouth!

After (another) trip to IKEA we came home with the KLIPSK bed tray. I placed it on the floor with the intention of using it as an art station for Aidan but Evie immediately crawled over and stood up on it. With that small action an idea was born!

play.learn.laugh_40373964_160668838177208_6554632948532661460_n.jpg

I grabbed a handful of pom poms, secured them in the tray with clear contact and let her at it. It was an immediate success!

While she is still so young I have made it her independent sensory tray which will allow her to explore different textures, colours, sounds and sensations. Of course I will still be there, just not playing goalie between the objects and her mouth - because they can't get to her mouth!

play.learn.laugh_40949127_335222210556252_694645301392056494_n.jpg

So far, she has been able to explore and discover so much more about the things I put in the tray as she is not interrupted by me. Evie has been able to explore different colours and listen to the rattling sound that the objects make. Larger objects push against the clear contact making it easier for her to feel their texture. Her vestibular and proprioception skills are also challenged as she stands and balances on the tray, having to coordinate her arms and legs when the tray begins to slip on the floor boards.

Doing science based activities together has also been made easier. When I placed ice in the tray the cold sensation radiated through the contact making her hands very cold. During this session, I spoke to her about temperature and showed her familiar objects that are also cold. The ice cubes didn’t stick to the contact so she had great fun trying to catch them. By simply trapping small objects under clear contact Evie can engage in these sessions safely and uninterrupted. Don’t worry if you don’t have one of these trays, a simple baking dish will work just as well!

Leading educators say that sensory play helps build nerve connections in the brains pathways, which lead to the child’s ability to complete more complex learning task – how cool is that! It also supports language development, cognitive growth, fine and gross motor skills, problem solving skills, social interaction and can enhance memory….no big deal! Just when you thought it couldn’t get any better it can also help calm a frustrated or anxious child! I would love you to share, or ask me any questions about safe sensory play ideas, head over to my Instagram page @play.learn.laugh.

What does a sheep say? An animal game for babies.

New Curious Neuron Website!

Have you been to our website lately? Lots of changes have taken place at www.curiousneuron.com. We are now an online resource for parents, daycares and teachers. Our mission remains the same, to optimize development and learning in children through play. However, now you can simply head on to our website to find lots of activities you can play with your children as well as information to assist students and teachers. We encourage you to send us your questions and we will answer them (anonymously) through our posts. 

Activity: What does the sheep say? Animal sound game for babies. 

Although babies can often play on their own for a while, we must remember that they need stimulation. Even if they are 6 weeks old, they are willing and ready to play with us. Animal sounds are great for language development and what is even better for them is to have a visual of this animal. I started asking my daughter this question when she was about 2 months old and by 8 months, she surprised me with an enthusiastic "BAAAA". I thought of incorporating the animals since as I was reading to my newborn son, he seemed more interested in eating the book rather than hearing the story. I wanted to make sure he wasn't missing out on story time, so I needed to think outside the box. As I watched my daughter playing with her Little People Farm, I realized I could bring story time to life with the animals! Like magic, my son was captivated! Below, you will find the info you need to do this activity with your baby.

Target Age:

As of birth

Materials:

You can use any animal figurine (such as Little People farm animals), stuffed animals or puppets

activity layout:

When creating a story, use your child's name as well. and keep it simple. For instance, "Once upon a time, there was a cow (show your baby the cow) who wanted to come play with _________ (point to your baby). The cow said moooo to ________. The sheep, (show them the sheep) also wanted to play with them. What does a sheep say? Baaaaaa said the sheep to the cow (show the cow) and to _______ (your baby). This is an example of how you can play with the animals and your baby. When changing their diaper, feeding them or even during a car ride, you can ask them "What does the sheep say?" Wait then say Baaaaa. Although it will take a few months before you actually get an answer to your question, they love hearing the animal sounds and its great for their development! As a bonus, recounting the story to them in the car might even get them to stop crying!

As your child is doing tummy time, you can also walk the animals across the floor so that they can learn to follow it. Eventually, they will reach out for the animal. Around 5-6 months of age, set the animal a certain distance away from them and let them try to get it on their own. 

As a bonus, you can also have your older child help you create a story (to help build on their creativity, vocabulary etc.). Guide them through it and if they block...give them time to think about it before helping them. For instance, my toddler might say, "one upon a time there was a cow" and she might end it there. I wait a little then, prompt her with, "What was the cow doing? Was the cow playing? Who was the cow playing with?". 

Which Developmental Milestones does this activity promote?  

This activity aims to help babies with 2 and 4 month milestones for both language and cognition. See below for full details. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index.html

Developmental Milestones: Your baby at 2 months 

Developmental Milestones: Your baby at 2 months 

Developmental Milestones: Your baby at 4 months

Developmental Milestones: Your baby at 4 months

I hope you enjoy this activity with your baby. In my following posts focusing on babies, I will discuss how to use a mirror for playtime as well as how to create a "discovery box".

Stay tuned and make sure you sign up to our mailing list to get the posts in your inbox! 

Have fun playing!! 

Cindy

Cindy Hovington, PhD 

Founder of Curious Neuron